The Roman Army Under Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar’s success as a politician was deeply tied to his success as a military leader. Therefore studying the Roman army during Caesar’s life helps one understand why he was so popular and why the Senate wanted him dead.

With The Seventh, Eighth, And Ninth Legions, The Tenth - Military Uniform (1000x475), Png Download
Uniforms of the 10th Legion (Julius Caesar’s Legion) during Caesar’s life, the reign of Augustus, and afterwards.

Caesar was commander (or legatus legionis) of the 10th mounted legion, which means his soldiers were mounted on horseback. Caesar was in charge of maintaining control over the warring tribes in Gaul (modern day France). Each legion was organized into 6 companies (cohorts) of 100 men, led by a Centurian, Source :

Organization of the 10th Legion. As you can see from the key below, each company of 80 to 100 men is led by a Centurian, and each company has 3 Tesserarius (watch commanders)

According to, Caesar helped reform his army, and his Centurians carried out many different campaigns in Gaul:

As you can see, his soldiers were mainly armed with helmets, leather armor, and their large shields and Gladius swords. Below is an exploration of the different parts of the Roman uniform:

Watch: “Forged In Fire: THe Roman Gladius”

One way to learn about Julius Caesar is to learn about the weapons he used as general of on of the most fearsome legions in Rome. In this blade-forging competition from the History Channel, 2 master blacksmiths forge their own versions of a Roman Gladius, and put them to the test!